What is FPO?

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In the fast-paced world of finance, where acronyms and jargon can make things seem challenging, understanding the complexities of investment options can be tough. One term that often finds its way into financial discussions is FPO. But what is FPO, and how does it impact the Indian investor?

In this blog, we'll explore the meaning of FPOs, their mechanisms, types, and the benefits they offer.

What is FPO?

FPO, short for Follow-On Public Offer, is when a company, already listed on the stock market, decides to release more shares to the public. It's like a second round of sharing ownership with investors. Instead of being the company's first time on the stock market (that's an IPO), FPO happens later, allowing the company to get more funding by offering more shares. Essentially, it's a way for a company to grow and achieve its goals by giving people another chance to invest in it.

How Does a Follow-On Public Offer (FPO) Work?

When a company decides to do an FPO, it hires the help of investment banks. These banks assist in figuring out the right price for the new shares and handle all the paperwork. Think of them as the backstage crew making sure everything runs smoothly.

Now, for you, the investor: during an FPO, the company issues more shares, and you get a chance to buy them. The money collected from selling these new shares goes back to the company, helping them grow or tackle projects. So, in a nutshell, an FPO is like financial teamwork – companies get a boost, and you get an opportunity to invest in their success.

Let's make it more relatable with a fictional scenario. Imagine a company named "TechInnovate." This tech wizard decides it's time to revolutionise the industry with a groundbreaking product. To fund this venture, TechInnovate opts for an FPO. It releases more shares to the public, each priced at, let's say, ₹150. Now, investors who see the potential in TechInnovate can grab these shares, contributing to the company's growth while becoming proud shareholders themselves.

Types of FPO

  • Diluted FPO: A Diluted FPO happens when a company issues additional shares, but this issuance leads to a decrease in the ownership percentage of existing shareholders. It's like adding more ingredients to a recipe, but the taste is spread among a larger group. The company dilutes the ownership stakes of current shareholders to bring in new ones.
  • Non-Diluted FPO: In contrast, a Non-Diluted FPO ensures that the ownership percentage of existing shareholders remains unchanged. The company issues more shares, yet the pie is not divided into smaller slices. Existing shareholders maintain their proportional ownership even with the introduction of new shares.
  • At-the-Market FPO: An At-the-Market FPO is a more flexible approach. In this type, the company sells its additional shares directly to the public at prevailing market prices. It's similar to setting up a pop-up shop where the company can sell its shares as needed, adapting to the current market conditions. This method allows the company to respond to the demand for its shares in real time, ensuring a more dynamic and market-driven approach to the FPO process.

Benefits of Follow-On Public Offers (FPOs)

  • Capital Infusion: FPOs provide companies with a quick infusion of capital, acting like a shot of adrenaline for their growth plans.
  • Increased Liquidity: More shares mean increased liquidity in the market, making it easier for investors to buy and sell.
  • Diversification: For existing shareholders, FPOs offer a chance to diversify their holdings.
  • Reduced Debt: Companies can use FPO proceeds to pay off debts, lightening their financial load and ensuring a smoother journey ahead.

How is an IPO different from an FPO?

Let's touch on the predecessor of FPO – the Initial Public Offering (IPO). An IPO is like a company's first sale of shares to the public. It's their debut in the market, where a company goes from being privately owned to publicly traded for the first time.

Now, think of a Follow-On Public Offer (FPO) as a continuation. The company is already listed, and with an FPO, they're offering more shares to the public. So, an IPO is the beginning, and an FPO is the next step, where a listed company decides to raise more funds by offering additional shares after its initial debut in the stock market.


Understanding what an FPO is can be empowering for you as an investor. It's not just a phrase tossed around in the financial world; it's a mechanism that drives growth and opens doors for both companies and shareholders. In the ever-changing Indian market scenario, companies are using Follow-On Public Offers (FPOs) more frequently as they aim for excellence and expansion. So, when you come across the term "FPO" next time, you won't just know what it means, but you'll also understand its crucial role in shaping the financial landscape – a landscape full of chances for growth and prosperity.

Disclaimer: Investments in the securities market are subject to market risk, read all related documents carefully before investing. This content is for educational purposes only.

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