NTPC Ltd. – A Comprehensive Guide

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NTPC Ltd., or National Thermal Power Corporation Limited, is the largest power company in the country, playing an instrumental role in generating and distributing electricity to various parts of India. Its establishment was meant to strengthen the nation’s power distribution, ensuring stable and dependable electricity access to both cities and countryside areas. This is crucial not only for lighting homes but also for powering industries, significantly aiding the country’s growth and advancement.

Join us in this comprehensive exploration of NTPC Ltd., and discover the various aspects that make it stand tall in India’s energy landscape.

About NTPC Ltd.

FounderGovernment of India
Industry TypeEnergy
Year Founded1975
HeadquartersNew Delhi, India
Key PeopleGurdeep Singh (Chairman & MD)
Parent CompanyMinistry of Power, Government of India
Number of Employees16,498
Market Cap₹2.31 trillion
Total Installed Capacity73,024 MW

Overview of NTPC Ltd.

With an installed capacity of 73,024 MW, including Joint Ventures, NTPC Ltd. plays a crucial role in India’s economic progress. The company operates a diverse range of power stations, including 26 coal-based, 7 gas-based, 1 hydro station, and 15 solar PV projects. Additionally, it oversees various coal-based, gas-based, hydro, and renewable energy projects as Joint Ventures and Subsidiaries. By 2032, NTPC Ltd. aims to boost its non-fossil fuel-based generation capacity to nearly half of its total portfolio, highlighting its commitment to environmental responsibility and sustainable operations.

As of 31st March 2023, NTPC Ltd. holds 17% of India’s total national capacity, contributing to 25% of the nation’s total power generation. This substantial contribution is due to the company’s consistent operation at high efficiency, ensuring a reliable and constant power supply nationwide. In October 2004, NTPC Ltd. entered the public market with its Initial Public Offering (IPO). While the Government of India initially held an 89.5% equity share capital, it was later reduced to 51.10%, allowing public and institutional investors to acquire a stake in the company. This diverse shareholding emphasises public trust in NTPC Ltd.’s growth and operations.

NTPC Ltd. is among the top employers in India, prioritising the well-being and ongoing development of its workforce. It places significant importance on employee welfare, contributing to the company’s sustained growth and innovation.

NTPC Ltd. History

1975: NTPC Ltd., a significant player in power generation, was founded on November 7.

1976-1977: NTPC’s journey began with Shri D.V Kapur as the first Chairman and managing Director. The Indian Government approved the first superthermal power project at Singrauli in Uttar Pradesh. The land was acquired at Singrauli to start the construction.

1983: NTPC-Ramagundam in Telangana became operational, commissioning its first 200 MW Unit.

1985: The Government of India approved three gas-based projects at Kawas, Auraiya, and Anta. The World Bank provided a historic loan of US$485 million for these projects.

1987: NTPC crossed the 5000 MW installed capacity, solidifying its presence in the power generation industry.

1988: Rihand and Ramagundam projects were commissioned, contributing to the growth in capacity.

1989: NTPC launched its Consultancy division 

1993: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) extended a direct loan of USD 400 million for NTPC projects.

1998: NTPC commissioned the first Naphtha-based plant at Kayamkulam, demonstrating diversity in power generation sources.

2002: NTPC’s installed capacity surged past 20000 MW, and it incorporated three wholly-owned subsidiaries, further expanding its operations.

2016: NTPC-Dadri was globally recognised with the Top Plant 2016 Award by Power Magazine of the USA in the Coal-fired Generation category.

2019: NTPC was honoured as the ‘Best Performing Utility in the Thermal Power Sector’ by the Central Board of Irrigation and Power (CBIP).

2020: NTPC expanded by acquiring the Government of India’s stake in THDC & NEEPCO.

2021: NTPC achieved a milestone by generating 1 BU in a single day.

2023: NTPC’s installed renewable energy capacity crossed 3GW, emphasising its commitment to green energy.

Major Subsidiaries of NTPC Ltd.

1. NTPC Electric Supply Company Limited (NESCL)

Established to focus on the distribution and supply of electricity, NESCL is a crucial subsidiary ensuring that power generated by NTPC reaches end-users efficiently. NESCL works towards expanding the reach of NTPC’s electricity supply, aiming for the seamless distribution of power to different regions.

2. NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Limited (NVVN)

NVVN, a subsidiary of NTPC Ltd., is committed to trading electricity across various states in India. This subsidiary plays a fundamental role in managing the sale and purchase of electricity, ensuring that the supply meets the demand effectively and reliably. NVVN facilitates the smooth functioning of the electricity market, contributing to the stability of power supply across regions.

3. NTPC Renewable Energy Ltd

As the name suggests, NTPC Renewable Energy Ltd is a subsidiary dedicated to advancing renewable energy projects. With an emphasis on sustainability and environmental responsibility, this subsidiary explores, develops, and manages renewable energy projects, including solar and wind energy. This initiative aligns with NTPC’s commitment to increasing the share of non-fossil fuels in its energy portfolio by 2032.

4. Kanti Bijlee Utpadan Nigam Limited (KBUNL)

KBUNL is another significant subsidiary, focusing on power generation to meet the increasing demand for electricity in the nation. It is an essential part of NTPC’s endeavour to enhance its power production capacity, ensuring that the growing energy needs of India’s population and industries are met efficiently.

5. Bhartiya Rail Bijlee Company Limited (BRBCL)

BRBCL is a joint venture between NTPC and the Indian Railways to generate electricity mainly for railway operations. This partnership aims to enhance the electricity supply for India’s expansive railway network, ensuring the uninterrupted and efficient operation of trains across the country.

6. Patratu Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Limited (PVUNL)

PVUNL is a subsidiary dedicated to the production of electricity in the state of Jharkhand. It plays a significant role in catering to the power needs of the state, contributing to its growth and development.

Major Acquisitions by NTPC Ltd.

THDC India Limited

In the year 2020, in a landmark deal, NTPC Ltd. acquired the Government of India’s stakes in THDC India Limited. This move enhances NTPC Ltd.’s position as the chief power generator in India and shows its commitment to contributing more to the nation’s power sector.

THDC India Limited is a company focused on hydroelectric power development. NTPC Ltd.’s acquisition of THDC allows for an expanded energy portfolio by enhancing its hydroelectric power generation capacity. With projects spread across different states, THDC contributes a substantial amount of electricity to the national grid, aiding in fulfilling the country’s energy needs.

North Eastern Electric Power Corporation Limited (NEEPCO)

NEEPCO is another significant acquisition by NTPC Ltd. This acquisition allows NTPC Ltd. to have a more extensive presence in the North Eastern region of India, which is vital for the uniform development of electricity infrastructure across the country. NEEPCO has various power projects that generate electricity using different sources, including hydro, thermal, and renewable energy. The addition of NEEPCO’s capacity to NTPC Ltd.’s assets ensures a more diverse and reliable supply of electricity to meet the growing demands of the nation.

Products/Brands under NTPC Ltd.

1. Thermal Power

NTPC Ltd. is India’s largest energy conglomerate with roots that go back to the commencement of its first thermal power project in 1976. Thermal power forms the bulk of NTPC’s energy production, and the company operates multiple thermal power plants across India. These power plants use coal, gas, and oil as fuel to generate electricity, contributing immensely to India’s energy stability and growth.

2. Solar Power

NTPC Ltd. has also ventured into solar power generation, in line with global trends and the increasing need for cleaner, sustainable energy sources. They have embarked on various solar power projects, producing energy from the sun and contributing to the renewable energy sector, further solidifying their commitment to sustainable and eco-friendly power generation.

3. Wind Energy

As part of its diversified portfolio, NTPC is investing in wind energy. The company is working on multiple projects to harness wind power for electricity generation, thus contributing further to the sustainable energy goals of the country.

4. Mining

NTPC also delves into the mining sector. The company is involved in coal mining operations to fuel its thermal power plants and ensure a consistent and reliable supply of coal. This vertical integration allows NTPC to maintain a steady supply chain for its primary energy source, reinforcing its position as a reliable power provider.

5. Electricity Distribution

Beyond power generation, NTPC is also involved in electricity distribution. This end-to-end approach ensures that the power generated by NTPC’s various plants reaches the end consumers, facilitating comprehensive control over the power supply chain and ensuring efficiency and reliability in power distribution.


NTPC Ltd stands as a pillar in India’s energy sector. With its impressive history starting from 1975, it highlights a journey of continuous growth, innovation, and contribution to national development. The company’s focus on expanding its renewable energy projects showcases its commitment to sustainability and environmental responsibility. NTPC’s consistent high-efficiency operations position it as a reliable power provider for India’s growing energy demands.

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